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Spacing Plants in Rows

from Illinois Vegetable Garden Guide


After choosing a garden site, the next step is to plan the arrangement of crops in the garden.






Spacing Between Rows. Proper spacing between rows is important to allow for growth of plants, ease of cultivation, and efficient use of space. Recommended spacings are given below.

ATV Planter
ATV Planter

If you have farm equipment and plenty of space, make your rows long and wide enough apart so that you can use your farm tractor and cultivator, thus avoiding much hand-weeding.

Farmer with Hoe by Georges-Pierre Seurat
Farmer with Hoe by Georges-Pierre Seurat

Vegetable   Seed to sow per foot Distance between plants when thinned or transplanted (inches) Distance between rows (inches) Planting depth (inches)   
Asparagus 12-18 36-60 6-8
Bean, bush, lima 3-4  Do not thin 18-30 1-2
Bean, bush, snap 6 Do not thin     18-24 1-2
Beet 10 2-4   12-18 ½-1
Broccoli  18-24    30-36
Cabbage 9-18       18-30 
Carrot 15-20 1-3  12-18 ½
Cauliflower
18-24 24-36
Chard 8-10 4-8         18-24 ½-1
Corn, sweet 1-2 in row
4-6 per hill 
9-12, single plants 36, hills (3 plants per hill)         24-48 1-2
Cucumber 3 in row
4-5 per hill
12, single plants
36, hills (3 plants per hill)   
48-72  1
Eggplant  18-24  30-36
Endive  4-6  9-12  18-24  ½
Garlic, from cloves 3         12-18
Kale 4-6 8-12        18-24 ½
Kohlrabi 6-8  3-6         18-24 ½
Lettuce, leaf 10 2-4         12-18 ½
Muskmelon  3 in row
4-5 per hill 
12, single plants 36, hills (3 plants per hill)      48-72 1
Mustard  20 1-2         12-18 ½
New Zealand spinach 4-6 12   24-30 1
Okra 3 12-15         36 1
Onion, from seed 10-15 2-4         12-18 ½-1
Onion, from plants or sets 1-4         12-18 1-4
Parsley 10-15 4-6         12-18 ½
Peas 10-12 Do not thin         18-24 2
Pepper 18-24  18-24
Potato 1 10-12         24-36 4
Pumpkin 1-2 in row
4-5 per hill
24-36, single plants 72, hills (3 plants per hill)    84-120 1
Radish, spring 10-15 1         12-18 ½
Radish, winter  10-15 2-4 12-18  ½
Rhubarb 24-36 36-48
Rutabaga 4-6 6-8 18-24 ½
Spinach 12-15 2-4     12-18
Squash, summer 2-3 in row
4-5 per hill 
18-24, single plants
48, hills (3 plants per hill)   
36-48 1
Squash, winter    1-2 in row
4-5 per hill
24-36, single plants
72, hills (3 plants per hill)
84-120 1
Sweet potato 12-18 36-48 
Tomato 18-36 36-60
Turnips 6-8
15-20 (greens)
2-4         12-18 ½
Watermelons 1-2 in row 4-5 per hill 24-36, single plants 72, hills (3 plants per hill) 84-120 1

Source: University of Illinois Extension | University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign | College of ACES


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