Kitchen As Laboratory (see chapters Fourteen "The Role of
Gases in the Culinary Experience" and Sixteen "Why Does Cold Milk Foam
Better") A firm grasp of the science of foam
yields valuable tips for the creation of the perfect cappuccino drink.
Getting the milk to foam properly when making a real
cappuccino with espresso and steamed milk is a precise art. Creating
the perfect foam for your coffee is not as easy as it sounds.
It is generally accepted that one should use cold
milk (40°F [4°C])
and rapidly inject steam into the
The steam and rapid mixing form the bubbles that create
Steam injection produces significantly stronger foams compared with
bubbling and mechanical agitation.
The type of milk is important. Most skim and part-skim milks
easier to foam than whole milk; however, foam from whole milk can be
more tasty and creamy.
Hot milk can have a negative effect on many aspects of both foam
formation and stability. When hot, milk becomes less viscous and
therefore the liquid drains faster from within the bubbles. Second, the
solubility of air in hot milk decreases, inhibiting foam formation.
Milk that has been heated and then cooled should be
foaming. However, milk that has been ultra-high temperature
(that is, sterilized) produces weaker foams, presumably because the
extremely high processing temperatures have reduced the ability of
proteins to adsorb to and stabilize the bubbles.
Foams produced with skim milk are more stable than those
with whole milk because of the detrimental effect of fat on the
It is recommended that a stainless-steel jug be used to create
the foam. Steel will dissipate some of the heat, allowing more time for
air to become infused into the cold milk before it gets too hot and fat
globules become liquid.
Kitchen As Laboratory
by Cesar Vega,
Job Ubbink and Erik van van der Linden
University Press, 2012
the unforseen happens, or when life gets just too hectic to fix the
you had planned, it's good to have a fall-back entree in the freezer.
little cookbook offers 120 meals, from Sweet 'n Hot Chicken to Veal
that can be prepared ahead of time and frozen in single-serve packages
for microwaving or stovetop reheating.
into sections featuring main dish meats -- Chicken and Turkey; Pork,
and Lamb; Beef and Veal -- the book features only dinners that can be
prepared in advance, frozen and reheated. No recipes for roasts or
to be found here.